UL 198H standard pdf

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UL 1278 standard

䤠ഊഊഊ䍯摥⁤鉩湳瑡汬慴楯渠摥猠慰灡牥楬猠捯浢畳瑩扬敳⁳潬楤敳⁥琠摵慴楥氠捯湮數攠ഊഊഊഊ㐮㈮㔠ഊഊ䱥猠潵癥牴畲敳⁤鉡摭楳獩潮⁤攠沒慩爠捯浢畲慮琠獩瑵猠沒鉥硴楥畲⁤甠拢瑩浥湴⁤潩癥湴⃪瑲攠灲潴猠摥鉥慵⁥琠摥愠湥楧攬⁰潵牶略猠撒畮⁧物汬慧攠灯畲⁥浰桥爠沒敮瑲⁤鉡湩浡畸Ⱐ撒楮獥捴敳⁥琠摥⁤物猬⁥琠晡扲楱痩敳⁥琠獩瑵猠摥⁦懧潮⃠⁲畩牥⁡甠浩湩浵洠汥猠敦晥瑳⁤甠癥湴⁳畲攠擩扩琠撒慩爠摡湳攠捯湤畩琮‍਍਍਴⸲⸶‍਍ੌ鉯當敲瑵牥⁳烩捩晩⃠鉡牴楣汥‴⸲⸳⁤潩琠㨠ഊഊ愩⁣潲牥獰潮摲攠畮攠獵牦慣攠潵癥牴攠畩癡汥湴攠潵⃠⁵湥⁡楲攠汩扲攠湥瑴攠⡣潭灴攠瑥湵⁤攠污⁰敲瑥⁤略⁡甠浯畳瑩煵慩牥Ⱐ慵⁧物汬慧攬⁥瑣⸩潮⁩湦楥畲攠捥汬攠煵鉥硩来鉡摭楳獩潮⁤鉡楲›‍਍੢⤠牥⃠⁡捴楯渠慵瑯湥瑴潹慮瑥Ⱐ摡湳愠浥獵牥⁤甠灯獳楢汥※‍਍੣⤠牥⁡捣敳獩扬攠灯畲攠湥瑴潹慧攠㬠整‍਍੤⤠牥⁰牯瓩柩攠摥猠摯浭慧敳慴楥汳⸠ഊഊ乯瑥⸠啮潵獴楱畡楲攠摩物柩⁶敲猠汥⁢慳⁥琠摥⁦潲浥⁣潴瑩煵攠灥畴⁦慣楬楴敲鉡畴潴瑥瑴潹慧攮‍਍਍਴⸲⸷‍਍੉氠摯楴⁹⁡癯楲⁵渠淩捡湩獭攠摥⁦敲浥瑵牥⁣潭灬攠摥鉯當敲瑵牥⁤鉡摭楳獩潮⁤鉡楲⁣潭扵牡湴潲獱略鉡灰慲敩氠溒敳琠灡猠畴楬楳⁌敳⁡灰慲敩汳⁤潴⁤鉵渠獹獴攠撒慬汵浡来⁡畴潭慴楱略⁤潩癥湴⃪瑲攠浵湩猠撒畮⁤楳灯獩瑩映摥⁶敲牯畩汬慧攠慦楮⁤鉥浰桥爠沒慬汵浡来⁳椠沒潵癥牴畲攠撒慤浩獳楯渠撒慩爠捯浢畲慮琠溒敳琠灡猠捯浰注瑥浥湴當敲瑥⸠ഊഊഊ㐮㈮㠠ഊഊ䲒潵癥牴畲攠撒慤浩獳楯渠撒慩爠湥⁤潩琠灡猠牥⁳楴痩攠㨠ഊഊ愩⃠潩湳⁤攠㆒㠠洠⠶⁰椩⁤鉵湥⁥湴狩攠撒慩爠淩捡湩煵攠潵⁤鉵渠瑵祡甠撒慣畡瑩潮⁤鉡楲⁤鉵渠慵瑲攠拢瑩浥湴※‍਍੢⤠浯楮猠摥‱
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ㄠ灩⤠慵ⵤ敳獵猠摵楶敡甠摵⁳潬⸠ഊഊഊ㐮㌠䅩爠摥⁶敮瑩污瑩潮‍਍ੌ潲獱疒畮攠捨慵摩攠潵⁵渠柩滩牡瑥畲⁤鉡楲⁣桡畤⁥獴⁩湳瑡汬摡湳⁵渠敳灡捥⁦敲淩⁤潮琠汥⁶潬畭攠敳琠楮曩物敵爠㈰‥⁤攠捥汵椠煵鉩氠摯楴⁣桡畦晥爬鉥獰慣攠敮ⁱ略獴楯渠摯楴⁡癯楲⁵湥甠摥猠潵癥牴畲敳⁰敲浡湥湴敳⁰潵爠慳獵牥爠畮攠捩牣畬慴楯渠撒慩爠湡瑵牥汬攠牡楳潮⁤鉵渠浩湩浵洠摥⁳畲晡捥楢牥整瑥⁤攠㌳〰洲⽫圠⠱鈵⁰漲⼱〰〠䉴甯栩⁤鉡灰潲琠敲柩瑩煵攬⁥琠摯楴⁣潭浵湩煵敲⁡癥挠畮甠撒慵瑲敳⁥獰慣敳⁰潵爠煵攠汥⁶潬畭攠瑯瑡氠撒慩爠摥⁣楲捵污瑩潮慴畲敬汥⁣潲牥獰潮摥⃠⁡甠浯楮猠㌰‥⁤甠癯汵浥⁴潴慬ⁱ略⁤潩琠捨慵晦敲鉡灰慲敩氮⁌愠灬畳⁰整楴攠摩浥湳楯渠撒畮攠潵癥牴畲攠摯楴⃪瑲攠摥′㔠浭
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UL 60730-2-4 standard

A23.1-09

(f) sustainable development (i.e., use of supplementary cementing material);

(g) volume stability;

(h) quality control plan;

(i) pre-qualification (i.e., trial batch, historical data, material conformance);

(j) finishability and finish requirements; and

(k) any special requirements of the owner.

4.1.2.2

Project specifications shall be reviewed by the contractor prior to ordering concrete.

Note: Successful specifications and supply of concrete are a collaborative effort between the owner, contractor, and supplier. A high level of communication, including provision and review of applicable documents and pre-job meetings, is strongly recommended.

[f044] 4.1.2.3 Ordering concrete
When ordering concrete, the following items, depending upon the alternative method in Table 5 selected by the owner, shall be designated:

(a) intended application and corresponding mix designation;

(b) method and rate of placement;

(c) quantity of concrete required;

(d) compressive strength at age;

(e) nominal maximum size of aggregate;

(f) air content for air-entrained concrete;

(g) required slump at point of discharge;

(h) finishability and finish requirements; and

(i) other characteristics as required.

4.2 Materials

4.2.1 Cements and supplementary cementing materials

4.2.1.1 Hydraulic cement

4.2.1.1.1 General

Grey, white, or coloured hydraulic cements shall conform to the requirements of CSA A3001.

4.2.1.1.2 Types

Hydraulic cement shall be specified by one or more of the types described in Table 6, as required. Note: For explanation of cement types, see CSA A3001.

4.2.1.2 Blended hydraulic cements

Blended hydraulic cements shall conform to the requirements of CSA A3001 and shall be specified by one or more of the types described in Table 7.

4.2.1.3 Supplementary cementing materials

Supplementary cementing materials shall conform to the requirements of CSA A3001 and shall be specified by one or more of the types described in Table 8.

4.2.1.4 Other cements and supplementary cementing materials

4.2.1.4.1

Cements other than those described in Tables 6 and 7 are beyond the scope of this Standard (see Annex A).

March 2011

(Replaces p. 36, July 2009)

� Canadian Standards Association

36

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UL 508C standard

CAN/CSA-S6-06

13.6.1.1.13 Vertical lift bridge overtravel

Counterweights for vertical lift bridges shall clear the fixed structure by at least 1 m when the span is raised to its open position. In determining this clearance, the stretch in the counterweight ropes due to initial loading plus any lengthening during service shall be assumed to be 1.0% of the calculated length of the rope.

13.6.1.1.14 Counterweight temporary support

For vertical lift bridges, provision shall be made for the independent support of counterweights during construction and for rope replacements.

13.6.1.2 Buffers

Movable bridges may be equipped with buffers or hydraulic shock absorbers designed to absorb energy when the span is being seated.

13.6.1.3 Bridge stops

Bridge stops shall be provided in order to limit the travel of the moving span in the open position. They may be made of wood or another material suitable for cushioning or may take the form of buffers.

13.6.1.4 Span aligning and locking

To prevent both horizontal and vertical displacement under the action of traffic, wind, or any other cause of displacement, moving spans shall have centring and seating devices that accurately align and securely lock the spans into position.

For swing bridges, the aligning mechanism may be an automatically closing latch or other suitable aligning and locking device operated by the end-lift mechanism, or the end-lifts may themselves be designed to align the bridge.

Locks at the junction of double-leaf bascule bridges shall be designed to transmit live load shear when there is live load on one leaf only.

Where the ends of bascule bridge decks are located behind the centre of rotation and calculations indicate that the toe could be lifted from the toe rest under the passage of live load, tail locks shall be provided in order to resist the maximum reactions from live load.

13.6.1.5 Equalizing devices

For power-operated swing bridges with two or more main pinions, the shafts of the pinions shall be connected by a device that will equalize the turning forces at the pinions.

For power-operated bascule and rolling lift bridges in which two or more racks per leaf are used, a device shall be provided to equalize the load on the main pinions.

Separate drives for each main pinion, with common control to provide equalization, may be used in lieu of mechanical equalization.

On span-drive vertical lift bridges, take-ups shall be provided at the anchored end of each operating rope for adjusting and equalizing the loads in them. These take-ups shall be self-locking and accessible for maintenance and inspection.

On tower-drive vertical lift bridges, warping devices shall be provided to level the span in the transverse direction.

13.6.1.6 Traffic signals

Traffic lights should be installed at least 25 m from each end of the moving part of the structure.

When required by safety regulations, or if specified by the Owner, a sound-producing device shall be installed at the bridge to warn that the bridge is about to open. The sound shall be clearly audible at a distance of 450 m in still air.

November 2006

� Canadian Standards Association

578

–`,,,“`,“,,“`,“,`,`,`,`,,,,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`—

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UL 1447 standard

© Canadian Standards Association

13.8.12.2 Hydraulic systems and components

13.8.12.2.1 Allowable system pressures

The hydraulic system shall be designed and the hydraulic components proportioned in such a manner that the maximum system pressures shall not exceed the following, except as approved in writing by the Engineer:

(a) normal operation: 6.9 MPa (1000 psi);

(b) operation against maximum specified wind loads: 13.8 MPa (2000 psi); and

(c) holding against maximum specified wind loads: 20.7 MPa (3000 psi).

Normal operation shall be defined as operation against the Case A loads specified in Clause 13.8.5.2. Operation against maximum specified loads shall be defined as operation against the Case B loads specified in Clause 13.8.5.3. Holding against maximum specified wind loads shall be defined as holding the movable span against the Case C loads specified in Clause 13.8.5.4.

13.8.12.2.2 Pressure ratings for hydraulic components

13.8.12.2.2.1

The minimum working pressure ratings for hydraulic components shall be as follows, except as approved in writing by the Engineer: (a) pipes, tubing, and their fittings: 20.7 MPa (3000 psi); and (b) flexible hose and hose fittings:

(i) for pressure lines: 34.5 MPa (5000 psi);

(ii) for drain lines: 13.8 MPa (2000 psi); and

(iii) for cylinders, pumps, valves, and all other components: 20.7 MPa (3000 psi).

13.8.12.2.2.2

The working pressure rating shall be defined as the maximum allowable continuous operating pressure for the component. For pipes, tubing, flexible hose, and fittings, the working pressure rating shall be the burst pressure rating divided by a minimum safety factor of 4. For cylinders, the working pressure rating shall be equal to the National Fluid Power Association theoretical static failure pressure rating required by
Article 6.5.37.11 of Chapter 15 of the AREMA Manual for Railway Engineering, divided by a minimum safety factor of 3.33. For pumps, valves, and other components, the working pressure rating shall be the maximum allowable peak (intermittent) pressure rating divided by a minimum safety factor of 1.5.

13.8.12.2.2.3

The minimum safety factors specified in Clause 13.8.12.2.2.2 shall apply to systems with light-to-moderate operating shock loads during operation, resulting in short-duration peak system pressures not greater than twice the allowable maximum operating pressure against Clause 13.8.5.3 Case B loads or Clause 13.8.5.4 Case C loads, whichever are greater. For systems with higher shock load pressures, the safety factors shall be increased proportionally.

13.8.13 Bearing pressures (moving surfaces)

13.8.13.1 Maximum bearing pressures

The maximum bearing pressures specified in Table 13.12 shall be used in proportioning rotating and sliding surfaces. Bearing pressures greater than the maximum values specified in Table 13.12 may be used where the maximum loading occurs only during a small part of the motion cycle or in other cases deemed appropriate, provided that special precautions are taken with respect to surface finish and lubrication. The greater bearing pressures shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer.

November 2006

Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

603

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UL 497A standard

S6S2-11

© Canadian Standards Association

For aluminum pedestrian bridges, material shall comply with (a) the requirements for aluminum highway bridges; or (b) ASTM B26 or ASTM B108. Alloys 356.0-T6, A356.0-T61, or A357.0-T61 shall be used and
Clause 12.5.5.2.3 shall apply. The purchaser shall require the casting producer to report tensile yield strengths. For sand castings, the purchaser shall require that tensile ultimate and tensile yield strengths of specimens cut from castings be at least 75% of the values specified in ASTM B26. Radiographic inspection in accordance with ASTM B26 Grade C or ASTM B108 Grade C criteria is required. The number of castings to be radiographed and the lot acceptance shall be as given in Table 17.1.

Table 17.1
Radiographic inspection frequency requirements for castings (See Clause 17.4.1.)

Lot size

Number of castings to be radiographed Number of castings to meet Grade C to pass lot

2–50

2

2

51–500

8

7

[f03e][f020]500

13

11

17.4.2 Mechanical strengths

Mechanical strengths shall be as given in Table 17.2.

Table 17.2 Mechanical strengths

(See Clause 17.4.2.)

Strength Wrought alloys

Cast alloys

Fu Minimum tensile ultimate strength given in the ASTM standards listed in Clause 17.4.1 75% of the minimum tensile ultimate strength given in the ASTM standards listed in Clause 17.4.1

Fy Minimum tensile yield strength given in the

ASTM standards listed in Clause 17.4.1 75% of the minimum tensile yield strength given in the ASTM standards listed in Clause 17.4.1

Fwu Welded tensile ultimate strength given in

CSA W47.2

Fwy Welded tensile yield strength given in

CSA W47.2

Fsu Shear ultimate strength = 0.6Fu

Fsy Shear yield strength = 0.6Fy

Note: Mechanical strengths for commonly used products are given in Table 17.3.

746

October 2011

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UL 1559 standard

S6S2-11

10.6.6 Areas inaccessible after erection

Areas inaccessible after erection shall be marked in the Plans and shall be given an Approved protective coating before erection.

The inside surfaces of sealed hollow structural sections and sealed orthotropic deck ribs need not be protected.

10.6.7 Detailing for durability

10.6.7.1 Drip bars

Drip bars shall be secured to the bottom flanges of plate girders near expansion joints.

10.6.7.2 Interior bracing

Interior bracing shall be detailed to allow access for inspection and maintenance over the full length of the bridge.

10.6.7.3 Angles and tees

Angles and tees exposed to the environment shall be placed with their vertical legs or webs extending downward wherever practical.

10.6.7.4 End floor beams and end diaphragms

End floor beams and end diaphragms under expansion joints shall be arranged to permit coating and future maintenance of surfaces that are exposed to surface runoff. The end diaphragms of box girders shall be detailed to prevent ingress of water into the boxes.

10.6.7.5 Overpasses

Girder sections of overpasses over expressways and over urban streets with traffic speed limits greater than 70 km/h shall be detailed to minimize the detrimental effects of salt spray.

10.6.7.6 Pockets and depressions

Pockets and depressions that could retain water shall be avoided, provided with effective drainage, or filled with water-repellent material.

10.7 Design details

10.7.1 General

Members and connections shall be detailed to minimize their susceptibility to corrosion, fatigue, brittle fracture, and lamellar tearing.

[f044] 10.7.2 Minimum thickness of steel
The minimum thickness of steel shall be as follows: (a) gusset plates for main members and all material in end floor beams and end diaphragms and their connections: 9.5 mm;

(b) closed sections, e.g., tubular members or closed ribs in orthotropic decks that are sealed against entry of moisture: 6 mm;

(c) webs of rolled shapes: 6 mm;

(d) webs of plate girders and box girders: 9.5 mm; and

(e) other structural steel except for fillers, railings, and components not intended to resist loads: 8 mm.

October 2011

(Replaces p. 444, May 2010)

� Canadian Standards Association

444

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UL Directory V standard

© Canadian Standards Association

Supplement No. 1 to CAN/CSA-S6-06, Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code

14.14 Resistance

14.14.1 General

14.14.1.1 General

The factored resistances of concrete, structural steel, and wood components shall be determined in accordance with the applicable Sections of this Code. Components that do not meet the limitations on which the resistance calculations of this Code are based shall have their resistances calculated in accordance with alternative procedures based on established and generally recognized theories, analyses, and engineering judgment.

14.14.1.2 Prestressed concrete using stress-relieved strand or wire

14.14.1.2.1 General

The requirements of Section 8 for low-relaxation strand or wire shall be followed for the evaluation of prestressed concrete bridges using stress-relieved strand or wire, except as modified by
Clauses 14.14.1.2.2 to 14.14.1.2.4.

14.14.1.2.2 Prestressing steel stress limitations

Stresses at jacking or transfer shall be based on data given on the Plans. In the absence of such data, the following stress limitations, for both pretensioning and post-tensioning, shall be used:

(a) at jacking: 0.80fpu ; and

(b) at transfer: 0.70fpu .

14.14.1.2.3 Loss of prestress

14.14.1.2.3.1 At transfer

In pretensioned components, the relaxation loss in prestressing steel, REL1, initially stressed in excess of

0.5fpu shall be calculated as follows:

REL t f
f f

sj py

log .

( ) -

1

24

= 10 0 55

[23a1]

[23a3] [23a2] [23a2]

[23a4]

[23a6] [23a5] [23a5]

sj

14.14.1.2.3.2 After transfer

The loss of prestress due to relaxation after transfer, REL2 , shall be calculated as follows:

REL f f

2

0 52 0 42 1 25 = -

[23a1]

[23a3] [23a2] [23a2]

[23a1]

[23a3] [23a2] [23a2]

st pu

. . . ppu pu

f

[23a4]

[23a6] [23a5] [23a5]

- + [23a1]

[23a3] [23a2] [23a2]

CR SH
f f

[23a4]

[23a6] [23a5] [23a5]

[23a4]

[23a6] [23a5] [23a5]

[2265] 0 01 .

pu

14.14.1.2.4 Prestressing steel stress at the ultimate limit state

The steel stress, fps , at the ultimate limit state in bonded prestressing steel shall be calculated using a method based on sectional strain compatibility and using stress-strain curves representative of the steel, except that if fse [f0b3] 0.5fpu , the value of fps may be calculated as follows:

f f f f

ps pu

= – ’

[23a1]

[23a3][23a2]

1 0 5

. m

p pu c

[23a4]

[23a6][23a5]

May 2010

(Replaces p. 665, November 2006)

665

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UL 60745-1 standard

CSA C A N / C S A – B3b5-M91 ** = 1875129 003610L 5

Norme nationale du Canada

CA N/CSA-B365-M9 I

Code d’installation des appareils à combustibles solides et du matériel connexe

Préparée par I’Association canadienne de normalisation

Approuvée par
le Conseil canadien des normes

Q

ISSN 03 17-8935
Édition française publiée en décembre 199 1 par l’Association canadienne de normalisation 178, boulevard Rexdale, Rexdale (Ontario), Canada M9 W I R3

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